ࡱ> surq` ;|bjbjqPqP .::;tL#### #, 02 $$$$$$$$_0a0a0a0a0a0a0$2hz40'$$''0$$0=(=(=('$$_0=('_0=(=(V/@/$$ j$#'^/ _0000/ 5':5//L5?0 $$=(j%t%#$$$003( $$$0'''' d dd d"rH Young lions, high priests, and old warriors Most companies lack the leadership they need to fulfill their ambitions, but there are ways to quickly build a company's leadership capacity. MAY 1995 TSUN-YAN HSIEH AND DOMINIC BARTON What prevents most organizations from going beyond the ordinary is insufficient leadership capacity. Reining back aspirations, settling for longer, easier deadlines, and hiring unproven talent from elsewhere may seem the only solutions for under-led organizations. But there is another way. CEOs who think specifically about leadership capacity stand a far better chance of getting their organizations to push through the barriers of normal performance. Faced with unprecedented challenges in the marketplace, most senior executives today are busy changing direction, rebuilding capabilities, right-sizing their workforce, and reengineering operating processes. Like the skipper of a champion sailing team, they are trying to make their ship sail better than ever before. Many of these executives will fall short of their aspirations, and a good number, despite valiant attempts to steer a course, will find themselves drifting with the tide. Most companies simply do not have the quality or quantity of leaders they need for the challenge they face Rarely will the problem be poor strategy or the lack of a sound implementation plan. Most often, it lies in a mismatch between the leadership capacity available in an organization and the scale of the task at hand. Most companies simply do not have the quality or quantity of leaders they need for the challenge they face. The leadership training programs that flourish in many companies are not the answer. Though helpful in stimulating individuals to become better leaders, they seldom address the leadership dynamics of whole organizations, the issue at stake here. Fortunately, there is good news for CEOs. Proven ways do exist to build leadership capacity quickly. And those who take the time to assess and develop the leadership capacity their business needs will find themselves well down the road toward extraordinary performance. Dangerous assumptions Compared with the time and effort lavished on strategy, benchmarking, and implementation planning, relatively little attention is paid to doing something explicitly designed to ensure adequate leadership. Key questions are overlooked. Who has the skills to drive individual initiatives? Can these people be released from their regular jobs? How will they be replaced? What risks are we prepared to take to stretch people and give them a chance? Above all, will those chosen to take on leadership roles be up to the challenge? Executives often make the following dangerous assumptions: They assume that leadership is a given. When a CEO concludes that the current leadership is too few in number or already overstretched, the instinctive response is to allow more time for implementation, accept a gentler pace, and/or shoot for less ambitious targets. But in an unforgiving marketplace, such compromises are seldom good enough. One manufacturing company extended its deadline for competitive parity in quality and cost in one of its product families by two years because "managers are already going as fast as they can." While it moved forward at a "more reasonable" pace, the competitive gap widened. Two years later, the entire product family collapsed, causing plant shutdowns and thousands of job losses. Another mistake is to assume that leadership exists only at the top. Some CEOs think that leadership capacity is simply what their direct reports can handle. Their tendency is to load more and more tasks onto the top teammost of whose capacity is already occupied in setting a direction, delivering short-term results, and ensuring the integrity of corporate governance. Horsepower is lacking: a three-ton truck cannot be driven by a lawnmower engine. Eventually, under-led efforts get bogged down, at great cost to morale and performance. For every success story of a new leader brought in from the outside, there is a failure Managers also often assume that imported leadership provides instant capacity. Not so. There is a limit to the number of people that can be assimilated successfully. Integration takes time, and if senior executives are imported from elsewhere, their ideas will need to be realigned with the vision and values of the organization. (The only exception is turnaround situations in which the old way of doing things must give way quickly to new approaches.) For every success story of a new leader brought in from the outside, there is a failure. Executives within the company become disenchanted with their advancement prospects. Either they leave or they make assimilation more difficult for the newcomers. Whichever, the problem grows worse. Hiring from outside is certainly not inadvisable as a means to spur a new direction or plug gaps in leadership, but neither is it the panacea many believe it to be. At the minimum, it will require extra efforts on the part of both new and established leaders. Perhaps most dangerous of all is the assumption that talent is infinitely resilient and will rise to any challenge. One CEO charged the companys best managers to lead a program of 20 initiatives designed to transform the entire businesswhile carrying out their regular jobs at the same time. Concerns that they might be overwhelmed by the sheer number of unfamiliar tasks and the aggressive schedule were brushed aside; the CEOs attitude was: "If they cant do the job, Ill find others who can!" Fear of personal failure prevented many of the managers from admitting to poor progress until too late, when the costs of recovery were prohibitive. Needless to say, change never took hold. Look at both sides of the mismatch If these wrong assumptions cloud our thinking about leadership capacity, better ways of assessing needs and availability are required. This may seem a daunting prospect. How do we begin to measure the energy that is needed to coax thousands of people out of their comfortable old habits to learn new ones? How much energy does it take to overcome resistance? What about the constant effort to communicate the new directionthrough action as well as wordsand mobilize people to act? Our experience suggests that rather than striving for precision in measuring required and available capacity individually, we should concentrate on appraising the imbalance between the two. Even rough estimates will go a long way so long as they are made consistently, because it is the mismatch itself that counts. How much leadership capacity is required? An organization facing a new challenge can calibrate the scale of leadership needed by relating it to the resources applied in a successful initiative in the recent past. It does not matter what measure is used provided that it is rooted in the companys experience. When a major packaged food company decided to expand in Southeast Asia, it estimated how much leadership capacity was required by examining its recent expansion in Europe. It determined that moving into India would be the equivalent of doing "three Frances," given the size of the population, the lack of infrastructure, and the paucity of organizational capabilities the company had in the region. Consequently, it staffed the India team with one dedicated senior executive and three project leaders, roughly three times the French resources of one part-time (40 percent) senior executive and one full-time project manager. Just as important as getting the right numbers is selecting the right people with the right leadership capabilities. In this case, the senior executive was chosen for his skills in building effective teams quickly and coaching new leaders. Two of the three project leaders were selected for their track records in leading new product development, while the third had strong experience as a country manager and a deep interest in oriental cultures. In construction work, fixed-price contracts put a premium on the ability to forecast resource requirements and costs. Bechtel, the consulting engineering firm, is known for its accurate forecasts of resource requirements for a wide range of complex projects, from hydroelectric dams to oil platforms. Its ability to act quickly and profitably in diverse situations around the world relies on its skill in classifying its projects and matching patterns from its extensive experience. Where an organization is breaking new ground or lacks experience, piloting an initiative can help it assess the leadership it needs Where an organization is breaking new ground or lacks experience in a particular field, however, piloting an initiative can help it assess the leadership it needs. A major North American retailer was implementing a new strategy that involved fleshing out a category approach for each of the 50 merchandise categories it carried. The change leader decided to pilot the new approach in one major category to gain a deeper understanding of the organizations readiness, the potential barriers, and the type and amount of leadership required to drive the program forward for all 50 categories in all stores. Extending a pilot across a large, multi-initiative program is a challenge in itself; at the very least, adjustments must be made for the additional leadership capacity required for dealing with several efforts at once. There may, however, be economies if a successful pilot fosters learning that can be applied to other parts of the program. The approach of one large industrial corporation illustrates another way to estimate capacity. Its leadership group recorded the number of days it spent planning, monitoring, and promoting specific initiatives. It referred to a day when the team worked particularly well together as an ELD, an "effective leadership day." It assessed all its work against this benchmark, so that a day it deemed only half as successful as the benchmark counted as a half-ELD. As its experience of teamwork deepened, the group grew more confident in estimating how many ELDs a particular project would take. Knowing roughly how many ELDs it had available allowed it to prioritize the projects it could accomplish as a team in one year. Peculiar or not, the system worked for this company. Incidentally, this way of thinking also led them to improve their team effectiveness so as to expand the total ELDs available. What leadership capacity is available? Capacity is a question of who has the skills for a particular task and how much time they have to spend on it Capacity is a question of who has the skills for a particular task and how much time they have to spend on it. We believe that CEOs should look beyond their senior management group for potential leaders. Whether down the line inside the organization or among outsiders, there may be many people who can make a positive contribution to pushing the organization toward outstanding performance. Viewed thus, hidden leadership capacity can be found in unexpected places: Lieutenants in good standingthe CEOs direct reports, though not those who are on their way out. These lieutenants represent constituencies in which they have credibility and power, and which they can mobilize through their leadership and support. The CEOs "kitchen cabinet," which usually includes trusted aides, aspiring lower echelons who enjoy the CEOs confidence or mentorship, close personal advisers, outsiders such as consultants, retired officers who were comrades-in-arms in earlier conquests, and sometimes spouses. These are the people with whom the CEO seeks counsel on sensitive issues. In one US corporation, key decisions were often debated around the kitchen table at the CEOs country house. The informal setting allowed the CEO to bring people in positions of formal authority together with people from other backgrounds. Decisions were subsequently syndicated in formal management meetings. "High priests," typically found in the top three levels of the management hierarchy. Insiders look to these individuals to interpret corporate events or executive moves. What they lack in formal authority they make up in influence. Younger people go to them for counsel and blessing before they commit to risky assignments. Newcomers seek them out to read the tea leaves about what the future holds or explain the way the company works. Keeping high priests plugged into the leadership network enables them to say the right things to the right people, allays unfounded fears in the organization, and encourages commitment among hesitant champions. In succession planning, few CEOs have the discipline to think through future generations of leaders Emerging leaders two or three levels down in the organization. These promising young people are the senior executives of tomorrow. Most CEOs have their favorite dozen or so to whom they turn for challenging projects. At one European travel company, problems in the pricing area urgently needed to be fixed. To help drive this critical initiative, a high performer two levels down the organization was moved up to replace the existing head of pricing, and given mentoring support by a senior board member. In six weeks, a new pricing policy was in place that led to a $25 million rise in profits within eight months. The unconventional moveand of course its impactboosted the morale of the whole company. In selecting leaders, senior executives must probe beyond the dazzling impressions made by articulate individuals and look for evidence of the leadership skills they seek. Few CEOs search sufficiently far and wide in their organization for people who might be tested. In succession planning, similarly, few have the discipline to think through the second and third generations of corporate leaders. These individuals are a valuable source of talent here and now. A "top 10 percent review" can be useful in developing a clear picture of leadership depth. Before launching a major initiative, a CEO spends time evaluating and ranking the top 10 percent of the organization, using leadership rather than regular management evaluation criteria. One manufacturer assesses individuals records in making things happen, followership, courage, commitment to the new direction, and skill (business, product, functional) before deciding who its true leaders are. The CEO of a forest products company located emerging leaders by asking each business unit manager to nominate an outstanding candidate for a specific leadership role and also to propose a second (and in some cases third) candidate from outside their business unit. This helped identify individuals with more unconventional backgrounds and approaches to leadership. In an age of attrition, many leaders of yesteryear are consigned prematurely to the corporate boneyard Old warriors. In an age of attrition, early retirement, and "rightsizing," many leaders of yesteryear are consigned prematurely to the corporate boneyard. Enlightened CEOs cannot afford to let these old heroes fade away. One such CEO hand-picked three proven leaders from the ranks of recently retired executives and deployed them on special projects where their experience, knowledge, and leadership skills were married with the energy and acuity of recent hires. One veteran worked on environmental technology to ensure compliance at much lower cost; another sought to reduce energy consumption in paper making; and the third investigated the best way to package certain non-core assets for sale. All three projects turned into spectacular successes. Empowered by the CEO and unfettered by corporate politics, these old warriors were single-minded in their efforts, as well as being personally secure enough to act as mentors to the young talents in their charge. Catalysts. Outsiders who are familiar with an organization and its business can add impetus to performance improvement efforts. Board members who reinforce a CEOs mandate for decisive action, investors with an eye on shareholder returns who clamor for executive reform, raiders who set in motion a race for value creationall may act as catalysts. Closing the gap in leadership capacity Neither leadership requirements nor available capacity are set in stone. Much can be done to narrow the gap between them by expanding capacity over time and moderating the demands on leadership. But dealing with a mismatch is never easy. At least a third of the battle lies in acknowledging the gap as early as possible, while there is still time to do something about it. Being proactive and anticipating the mismatch is the only solution. Yet it is seldom adopted. Senior executives usually find it difficult to justify to stakeholders any major change in their leadership group unless something has obviously gone wrong. This is particularly true when key executives have to be moved out and new people brought inactions that can seem unwarranted and unfair. Consider the cautionary tale of algae growth. If algae in a pond double in size every day, and take 30 days to cover the pond completely, on the twenty-ninth day the pond will be only half coveredeven though it is just a day away from disappearing beneath the algae. By analogy, capacity mismatches should be tackled before they reach the critical point when they become overwhelming. Leadership capacity can be increased In addition to searching for new leaders in unconventional places within the organization and hiring selectively from outside it, leadership capacity can be increased in the following ways: Roles defined by job descriptions often draw on only a fraction of the skills that individuals possess 1. Reconfigure leaders roles and responsibilities. Roles defined by job descriptions often draw on only a fraction of the skills that individuals possess. Few job descriptions call upon postholders to utilize their full potential. Much latent leadership energy can be liberated by redefining roles. In a European travel company, a senior manager with strong integrative problem-solving skills was taken out of his narrow functional job to lead a breakthrough initiative in one of the four most performance-constraining areas. To shrink catalog production time, he put together a cross-functional team with aggressive targets that challenged conventional thinking and assumptions. Within ten months, the team had cut a throughput of 120 days to just 45. New roles and new configurations often yield new vistas and new energieshence more leadership capacity. In an oil company, leaders were released full-time to work in a team managing a major change program. Their jobs were filled by others and they became a kind of parallel leadership structure, a "scaffolding" around the business. This allowed new initiatives to be introduced while regular day-to-day work still got done. Management felt that, without this reconfiguration, the company would not have achieved the attention and focus it needed to bring about extraordinary levels of change. When the organization emerged with a new way of doing business, the scaffolding was removed. 2. Create a network to integrate leadership energies. While reconfigur-ation involves structural change, networking is about association between people with like interests. Staff working in different parts of an organization might be passionate about the same issue or share common cause about the need to go beyond ordinary performance. By legitimizing their communication, senior management can help this network to realize its potential as a constructive force for sharing best practice and shaping joint expectations and goals. At a paper company with 12 geographically far-flung mills, a study found huge potential for reducing purchasing costs by decentralizing purchasing and allowing each mill to buy for the entire corporation the one or two commodity groups in which it had expertise. While the recommendations were being implemented, the CEO formed a network of purchasing leaders, CLAN, or Champion-Led Advancement Network. As well as being in constant electronic contact over the programs progress, leaders also got together quarterly to establish and monitor performance goals. In the second year, CLAN members set even more aggressive targets for themselves and pushed for the bulk of their compensation to be based on corporate (rather than mill) purchasing performance. Other initiatives we have seen confirm our belief that effective networks can expand leadership capacity. For leaders, networks are vital in helping them stay the course and preserve the integrity of their vision. A network of leaders can energize its members, strengthening their courage and conviction to move forward further and faster. When they work well, networks can provide essential checks and balances to make sure members do not goad each other into overreaching, as well as acting as a forum for celebrating success and sharing concerns and burdens. For people in other parts of the organization, networks represent an effective, universal means of communication to supplement traditional top-down channels. People behave according to their beliefs, not what they might have agreed to in a meeting 3. Align and realign leaders around the essentials. People behave according to their beliefs, not what they might have agreed to in a meeting. In their eagerness to get on with things, CEOs too often take nodding of heads, silence, and even withdrawal as signs of agreement. Hardly surprising, then, that some of those who "agreed" will later exhibit incongruous or even subversive behavior. True alignment is a meeting of minds producing agreement over actionsnot in everything, but in those few essentials about which there must be unity, such as beliefs about the fundamentals of the business. For example, individual top managers views about whether crude oil prices will rise or fall in real terms will influence their attitude toward capital investment. Beliefs about the magnitude and pace of change required and the organizations readiness to adapt also qualify as essential for alignment. Lack of alignment on these fundamentals saps leadership capacity. One oil company CEO was struggling to decide whether to go ahead with a controversial capital investment project. Wanting to form a view for the next board meeting, he rushed discussions about the outlook for oil prices and operating coststwo crucial factors on which the entire project economics were hinged. Though participants "agreed to" his assumptions, some felt uncomfortable. Consequently, more "what ifs" and "yes, buts" surfaced every time the CEO attempted to reach closure. Two years later, the proposal was still under discussion, leaving top management frustrated and the board irate. Episodes like this suggest that leaders should be open with each other about their personal beliefs and gain alignment on the essentials before charging ahead. Not doing this is like building on a house of cards. As events unfold and more information becomes available, it will be necessary to revisit these essentials to make sure that people are still aligned. Align and align again is the message. The intensity and urgency of an organizations efforts to perform are usually determined by its leaders aspirations 4. Raise leaders aspirations. Visions of a brighter future are uplifting. That is why the intensity and urgency of an organizations efforts to achieve outstanding performance are usually determined by its leaders aspirations. What is at the end of the rainbow? What does it mean to people? Is it noble enough? Exciting enough? Executives seldom admit how their personal aspirations affect their aspirations for the business. The CEO of an asset-intensive business was two years away from retirement. Motivated by a personal payoff in stock options, he was not open about why he was driven to maximize near-term share performance. Not surprisingly, he was reluctant to approve heavy capital investments that might bring future benefits. The COO of one Canadian consumer products company was convinced that he needed to deliver only incremental improvements and budgeted performance to become the next CEO. Why rock the boat? Why bother to change the way business was done? Leaders two or three levels down saw things differently. They thought major change was called for in the next two years to prevent foreign competition eroding the companys position. Some of them, naturally enough, were also motivated by career considerations. These personal aspirations were legitimate; the mistake lay in not making them explicit. Instead, the debate was conducted in business terms: "Its too risky to disrupt our salespeople after all the changes we have put them through," declared the COO. "Incremental change is not good enough. We will be eaten alive when the US giants roll across the border!" countered the other executives. Needless to say, precious time was lost while available leadership capacity lay fallow. Leaders are often thrown into situations where their knowledge does not apply and their style is inappropriate 5. Improve leaders resilience. While people can adapt their approach and style to some extent, we all have skills, knowledge, and ways with others that are inveterate. Yet leaders are often thrown into situations where their knowledge does not apply and their style is inappropriatefor example, consensus-seeking when a more directive approach is needed. The options are either to limit individuals to what they are good at, which hardly solves leadership shortages, or to improve their flexibility and resilience. Trial by fire apart, a good approach is to put leaders into teams with complementary skills and styles. Real teams are inherently resilient: their members compensate for each others shortcomings, whether in skills, style, or knowledge. Over time, good team experiences enlarge the repertoire of individual leaders. Demand for leadership capacity can be reduced There are two key ways to inhibit demands on leadership without sacrificing the goal of transcending ordinary performance: 1. Limit demands in non-essential matters. Senior executives often spend time on activities that add little value or have nothing to do with wider performance aims. Successful organizations focus more sharply on fewer thingsoften the handful of problems that constrain performance the most. Such concentration, backed with a rigorous review of how senior executives spend their time and how they are supported administratively, can free up as much as 20 percent of top management time. 2. Design the change program to conserve and build capacity. It can be tempting to call for all hands on deck and launch as many parallel initiatives as there are people to lead them. Such urgency may be genuine and driven by the demands of the marketplace. Too often, though, CEOs believe that going all out within an artificially short timeframe provides impetus, avoids the fatigue of long-drawn-out efforts, and secures victory sooner. Like army generals schooled in conventional warfare, these CEOs believe that throwing themselves on the enemy with all they have in one heroic charge is the best way to clinch the battle. Unfortunately for them, change is more like guerrilla warfare: ground must be gained and conceded, hearts and minds must be won through propaganda, and waiting patiently for the right moment can be as important as making the right move. We have found that the wisest course is to sequence initiatives carefully and launch in the first wave only those most critical initiatives that have adequate leadership capacity driving them. This means structuring, timing, and staffing initiatives wisely: Structuring involves determining the scope of the project, how it relates to other initiatives, and, above all, how tackling this one first might shed light on how to approach other projects with greater economies in time and money. More importantly, tackling the right one will unleash more energies in the organization, thus moderating if not reducing the leadership burden. Timing presents a tough judgment call: how long should leaders be given to come up with an initial answer, mobilize the organization, and institutionalize the new way? Sound judgment is needed in deciding not only how long leaders will take to complete a given task, but also how much stretch they can absorb. Staffing then becomes critical. It means selecting the right leader for the right task and finding opportunities to build more potential capacity into the first wave so that younger talents can be coached to lead later efforts. One Asian manufacturer establishing its first plant in the United States added an extra level of management (assistant department managers) to ensure it would have leadership capacity to draw on in further expansion across the country. Finding opportunities to build more potential capacity into the first wave will allow younger talents to be coached to lead later efforts Despairing of Chinas future after frustrating audiences with Emperor Gao Zong in 1793, Lord MacCartney, a British trade envoy, likened the country to an "old, crazy man-of-war (warship), which a fortunate succession of able and vigilant officers has contrived to keep afloat for all these years, but when an insufficient man happens to have the command upon deck ... She may not sink outright; but she will drift sometime as a wreck, and will then be dashed to pieces on the shore." Perhaps the same could be said today of corporations with inadequate leadership capacity drifting in the sea of change. About the Authors Tsun-yan Hsieh is a director and Dominic Barton a principal in McKinseys Toronto office. -93U3<4N46699BBEEMKMRRZ[bc/c3jRjnGnp@pgtrtuuww{{||;|hJ`hJ`0JhJ`hJ`6hJ`hJ`0J hJ`hJ`hJ`hJ`CJaJhJ`hJ`CJ,aJ,,-  G=Kao~ $ & Fa$gdJ`$ & Fdd[$\$a$gdJ` $^a$gdJ` $ & Fa$gdJ`$a$gdJ`$a$gdJ`$a$gdJ`$a$gdJ`$a$gdJ`$a$gdJ`;| !!#v%6'))+O-/00f193246S9$ & Fdd[$\$a$gdJ`$a$gdJ`$a$gdJ`$a$gdJ`$ & Fdd[$\$a$gdJ` $^a$gdJ`S99:y<H>2@ABBE*GQGHLJKKLMDNsPR$L^`La$gdJ`$a$gdJ`$a$gdJ`$a$gdJ`$ & Fdd[$\$a$gdJ` $^a$gdJ` $ & Fa$gdJ`RTWYZZt\q^ abc[def>hi3j8ltmmnpq$h^h`a$gdJ`$a$gdJ`$a$gdJ`$L^`La$gdJ`$L^`La$gdJ`qesgtuwxqy{{:|;|$a$gdJ`$a$gdJ`$a$gdJ` $^a$gdJ`$ & Fdd[$\$a$gdJ`$a$gdJ` ,1h/ =!"#$% @@@ NormalCJ_HaJmH sH tH R`R J` Heading 1dd@&[$\$5CJ0KH$\aJ0N`"N J` Heading 2dd@&[$\$5CJ$\aJ$N`RN J` Heading 5dd@&[$\$5CJ\aJDA@D Default Paragraph FontRiR  Table Normal4 l4a (k(No List2o2 J`datedd[$\$B^`B J` Normal (Web)dd[$\$"o" J`chead<o"< J` pullquotedd[$\$4U`14 J` Hyperlink >*ph>oB> J` endarticledd[$\$*W`Q* J`Strong5\;t  z z z z z z z z z z z > 9+6AL Y8dp;tX< -G=Kao  ~ v6!!#O%'((f)9+2,.S112y4H6289::=*?Q?@LBCCDEDFsHJLOQRRtTqV YZ[[\]^>`a3b8dteefhiekglmopqqss:t=t!!!!!!!!!!v:!!!!!!!!! !!v:!!!v:!!!!!!!!!!v:!!! ! !!!!!!!!! !!!v:!!!!v:!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!v:!!!!!!!!!!!v:!!-G=Kao  ~ v6!!#O%'((f)9+2,.S112y4H6289::=*?Q?@LBCCDEDFsHJLOQRRtTqV YZ[[\]^>`a3b8dteefhiekglmopqqss:t=t000-0-0-0-0-0-0-H0-0K0K 0K0K 0K 0K0K0K0K 0KH000H0000000000H000 0 0 0 000000 000 0H0000H000000000000000000000000H000000 0 0 000H000-G=Kao  ~ v6!!#O%'((f)9+2,.S112y4H6289::=*?Q?@LBCCDEDFsHJLOQRRtTqV YZ[[\]^>`a3b8dteefhiekglmopqqss:t=tK0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K0K00K00K00K00K00K00K00K00K00K00K00K00K00K00K00K00K00K00K00K00K00K0K00K00K00K0K0K0K0K0K0K0I0I0 0u;|?S9Rq;|@BCDE;|A;tԂR4ւR<4ׂR4؂R|4قR4ڂR|4ۂR|4܂R݂R, ނRl ߂R R R,!Rl!--)a)a5p5p*t*t=t     --+a+aBpBp1t1t=t 8*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsCityB *urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagscountry-region9*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsplace L      w'{'''((779:::EEJKqqqqqqss=t--::zBWC1I6Ibbmmn!n=t:::::::e..&lglss=t=t9cs:lJʊ1^`.^`.pp^p`.@ @ ^@ `.^`.^`.^`.^`.PP^P`.^`CJOJQJo(^`CJOJQJo(opp^p`CJOJQJo(@ @ ^@ `CJOJQJo(^`CJOJQJo(^`CJOJQJo(^`CJOJQJo(^`CJOJQJo(PP^P`CJOJQJo(^`CJOJQJo(^`CJOJQJo(opp^p`CJOJQJo(@ @ ^@ `CJOJQJo(^`CJOJQJo(^`CJOJQJo(^`CJOJQJo(^`CJOJQJo(PP^P`CJOJQJo(9lJcs#x?54`/-[x?5-[x?5 cM_4`/pJ`@~;t@@UnknownG:Ax Times New Roman5Symbol3& :Cx Arial?5 :Cx Courier New;Wingdings"qh4&4&Yb ;Yb ;!24tt3HX)?J`2,Young lions, high priests, and old warriors JKUATJKUAT   Oh+'0 $0 P \ ht|0Young lions, high priests, and old warriors JKUATNormalJKUAT2Microsoft Office Word@@2i$@2i$ Yb՜.+,0 hp  JKUAT;t -Young lions, high priests, and old warriors Title  !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`acdefghiklmnopqtRoot Entry Fj$v1TableG(5WordDocument.SummaryInformation(bDocumentSummaryInformation8jCompObjq  FMicrosoft Office Word Document MSWordDocWord.Document.89q